What types of elections are held in Belgium?

Zicht van boven op stemlokalen
© Dieter Telemans

In Belgium, you can vote in five different elections:

  • European elections: representatives for the European Parliament
  • federal elections: for the federal parliament (the Chamber of Representatives)
  • regional elections: for the legislative bodies of the federated regions, e.g.:
    • the Flemish Parliament
    • the Walloon Parliament
    • the Parliament of the Brussels Capital Region
    • the Parliament of the German-speaking Community
  • provincial elections: for the Provincial council
  • municipal elections: for the Municipal council.

On certain conditions, also non-Belgians can vote in a number of elections.

When do elections take place?

Below, please find per level of governance how often elections are held and whether non-Belgian residents have a right to vote.

Level of governance Frequency Right tot vote of non-Belgians
Municipal every 6 years

EU citizens
non-EU citizens

Provincial every 6 years no right to vote
Regional (Flemish) every 5 years no right to vote
Federal every 5 years no right to vote
European every 5 years EU citizens

How can non-Belgians vote in Belgian elections?

As a foreign national in Belgium, you can vote in municipal elections in Belgium on certain conditions. If you are a national of one of the countries of the European Union (EU), you are automatically allowed to vote in European elections.

In order to vote in municipal elections as a foreign resident, you must:

  • be registered in a Belgian municipality:
    • in the local authority's register office
    • or foreign nationals register
  • be 18 years of age or older
  • be listed in the electoral register.

In order to get enrolled in the electoral register, you must complete an application form. That form can be obtained free of charge from your local authority or can be downloaded from the election site.

The registration remains valid for the following municipal elections, on the condition that you continue to meet the conditions for voting. If you no longer want to vote in local elections, you must renounce your right to vote in writing.

Further information

All information on the local and provincial elections ((opens in new window)) is available at the Vlaanderenkiest.be website. Here, you will also find information on voting by non-Belgians in local elections.

The FPS Home Affairs website includes general information on electoral legislation and federal, regional and European elections ((opens in new window)). You will also find results and division of seats of the most recent elections.